Introduction :

Constructed at Saqqara about 4,700 years ago, the Step Pyramid of Djoser was the first pyramid the Egyptians built. The Pyramid of Djoser or step pyramid is an archeological remain in the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt, northwest of the city of Memphis.

History :

This first Egyptian pyramid consisted of six mastabas (of decreasing size) built a top one another in what were clearly revisions and developments of the original plan. The pyramid originally stood 62 metres (203 ft) tall, with a base of 109 m × 125 m (358 ft × 410 ft) and was clad in polished white limestone. The step pyramid (or proto-pyramid) is considered to be the earliest large-scale cut stone construction, although the pyramids at Caral in South America are contemporary and the nearby enclosure known as Gisr el-mudir would seem to predate the complex.

The Step Pyramid complex was enclosed by a 30-foot (10-meter) wall and included courtyards, temples, and chapels covering nearly 40 acres (16 hectares)the size of a large town in the third millennium B.C.

Beneath the step pyramid is a bewildering array of tunnels and chambers, the center of which is a 90-foot-deep (28 meters) shaft that, at its bottom, contains the burial chamber of king Djoser. Recent conservation work in the burial chamber reveals fragments of the king’s granite sarcophagus, the names of queens still legible.

“The step pyramid is the only pyramid in the Old Kingdom that 11 of the king’s daughters were buried”.


Geometry :

1) Constructed c. 26672648 BC (3rd dynasty)
2) Type Step pyramid
3) Material Limestone
4) Height 62 metres (203 ft.)
5) Base 125.27 metres (411 ft.) (larger)
6) 109.12 metres (358 ft.) (smaller)
7) Volume 330,400 cubic metres (11,667,966 cu ft.)


(Source :,